New Issue of Eastern European History Review
ISTITUTO NAZIONALE DI STUDI ROMANI
THE TURKISH THREAT AND THE IDEA OF “CRUSADING” IN THE PAPAL POLICY OF THE MODERN AGE IN THE STUDY OF SOME UNPUBLISHED OR RARE WORKS OF LAY OR RELIGIOUS AUTHORS (XV-XVII C.)
After the defeat of Constantinople (1453), the Holy See feared that the Turkish threat could also affect Europe and therefore Christianity. for this reason, during the early modern age, many popes felt the need to fight against the Muslim enemy: within a long list, we must include the names of Eugene IV [1431-1447], Pius II [1458-1464], Alexander VII [1655-1667], and Innocent XI [1676-1689] over of all. When the Turks, after the defeat of Lepanto (1561), showed to aim for the heart of Europe, passing through the Danubian-Balkan area, Pope Odescalchi was the proponent of a new, and modern, crusade. The essay, after reflecting on the term “crusade”, retraces all the diplomatic phases that saw Pope Innocent XI as an occult director in an attempt to defeat the infedele enemy before, and during, the dramatic siege of Vienna (1683)
KEYWORDS: Crusade, Papal policy, Modern, Innocent XI, Ottoman empire
INSTITUTE OF HISTORY, JAN KOCHANOWSKI UNIVERSITY IN KIELCE
EVALUATION OF TIME: ELECTIONAL ASTROLOGY ACCORDING TO CRACOW ASTROLOGICAL PREDICTIVE TEXTS OF THE PRE-COPERNICAN TIMES
Man has always looked for guidance – confirmation of the choices he made. Very useful proved to be astrology, which secrets were used in the prediction of future events. Based on the announcement flowing “from heaven” tried to “outwit fate” and in the case of a preferred arrangement of the heavenly bodies deliberately undertaken various activities, while avoiding taking any decision in the case of unfavorable configuration of celestial bodies. In this context, the time turned out to be an ally or an enemy. And it was the role of astrological forecasters to identify the moments conducive or not making all kinds of decisions or actions which, although sometimes trivial, sometimes, however, experienced a fateful …
KEYWORDS: Medieval astrology; University in Cracow; Calendars; Almanacs; Time.
ADAM MICKIEWICZ UNIVERISTY IN POZNAŃ
GIACOMO DELLA PORTA ARCHITECT OF THE POLISH NATIONAL CHURCH OF ST. STANISLAO IN ROME
The beginnings of the Polish church of St. Stanislaus dates back to 1578, when on the initiative of Cardinal Hozjusz a Polish national institution was established in Rome. At that time, Pope Gregory XIII granted Poles the medieval church of San Salvatore in Pensilis. Two years later, construction works began on the site of the old church, which ended in 1591 during the solemn consecration of the temple. In the sources, the name of the author of the design of the Polish church has not been preserved, but the style of architecture, spatial concept, as well as architectural detail seem to confirm
that it was the most influential architect of the second half. 16th century in Rome, Giacomo della Porta. His authorship is also due to the fact that during the construction campaign, the cardinal protector of Poland was Alessandro Farnese, a great patron of the arts and patron of artists, whose court architect was Giacomo della Porta.
KEYWORDS: 16th century; Architectur; Giacomo della Porta; Alessandro Farnese; St. Stanislaus church in Rome.
Francesca De Caprio
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI della TUSCIA
L’ENTRATA SOLENNE A DANZICA DELLA REGINA DI POLONIA LUDOVICA MARIA GONZAGA NEVERS ATTRAVERSO ALCUNI RESOCONTI FRANCESI ED ITALIANI.
The solemn entrance of the Queen of Poland Maria Ludovica Gonzaga Nevers in Gdansk through some French and Italian reports.
After a long and complicated diplomatic negotiation, on 5 November 1645 the Princess Ludovica Maria Gonzaga Nevers married by proxy in Paris the King of Poland Władysław IV Wasa. On 27 October 1645 the Queen, who had changed her name to Louise Marie (and then in Ludwica Maria), left for Poland. After more than two months of a triumphant journey, she finally arrived on 8 February in Royal Prussia. The Queen had entered finally into territories governed by her husband. This change in status of traveller, who is now no longer a Royal guest but is the Queen Consort in the reign of her husband, is immediately reported in the reports of the voyage. The triumphal welcome in Gdansk had been scheduled for a double solemnity: that of the first entry of the sovereign and that of the religious ceremony, as we know the religious ceremony took place in Warsaw; But till the last moment the King had tried to comply with the program to celebrate it in Gdansk. And welcome in the city continued to refer both the entrance and the wedding ceremony. We understand, therefore, why the hospitality in Gdansk were so solemn and magnificent.
KEYWORDS: Ceremony, Marriage Culture; Travel; Louis XIV; Marie Louise Gonzaga.
UNIVERSITY OF CAEN NORMANDIE
FRANCESCO BUONVISI E LA PREPARAZIONE DEL CONGRESSO DI NIMEGA: LA SANTA SEDE TRA MEDIAZIONE ED ESCLUSIONE DALLE TRATTATIVE DI PACE
On 20 July 1675, Francesco Buonvisi received the appointment as ordinary nuncio to the court of Vienna. This task had been entrusted to the lucchese thanks to its brilliant and effective nunciature covered in the Polish-Lithuanian Kingdom. The objective of this new task for Buonvisi was to induce Leopold I of Habsburg to quickly reach peace with Louis XIV and then push the emperor to fight the Turkish threat in Hungary. In this complex political-diplomatic framework, the pope wanted to participate in the peace congress as mediator, but it was essential that the negotiations take place in a city of Catholic faith. For this reason, the proposal of the “heretic” Nijmegen as a possible town for the negotiation had to be absolutely avoided. Furthermore, Clement X wanted Venice to be associated with the pontifical mediation, but this proposal had found opposition from the Spanish court. To achieve these purposes, the Holy See relied on the work of its ordinary and extraordinary nuncios, among whom the figure of Francesco Buonvisi stood out, not by chance sent to a court, the imperial one, which was the keystone in the projects of Rome.
KEYWORDS: Buonvisi; Habsburg; Luois XIV; Holy See; Papal Policy.
Józef Andrzej Gierowski (1922-2006